Welcome to Alberta
Alberta is the westernmost of the prairie provinces of Canada . The capital is Edmonton 's largest city, Calgary . The province is named after Louise Caroline Alberta, Duchess of Argyll , the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria .
Alberta landscape of the prairie , struck in the east to Manitoba expands. On the western border of the province, however dominate the foothills of the Rocky Mountains . Alberta has vast oil reserves and is the richest province in Canada. Other economic factors are cultivation and cattle breeding.
In southern Alberta borders the U.S. state of Montana , on the east by the province of Saskatchewan , on the north by the Northwest Territories and to the west by British Columbia
With the exception of south-western Alberta is rich in water. There are numerous rivers and lakes. The three largest lakes of Lake Athabasca 7898 km ²), its eastern larger part lies in the province of Saskatchewan, the Lake Claire 1436 km ²), just west of Lake Athabasca in Wood Buffalo National Park and the Lesser Slave Lake 1168 km ²) northwest of Edmonton
Alberta's capital, Edmonton , lies almost in the geographical center of the province and most of Alberta's oil is here refined . The southern Alberta, where Calgary is located, is known for its ranching . Much of the unforested Alberta becomes the cereal or the milk used, with ranching and grassland dominate the south. The Badlands of Alberta is located in the Southeast, where the Red Deer River crosses the flat prairie and farmland, and deep gorges and spectacular scenery can be seen. The Dinosaur Provincial Park , near Brooks , is the setting for the terrain of the Badlands, the flora of the desert and the remains of Alberta's past when dinosaurs roamed the landscape.
Alberta is geographically divided into seven regions:
Edmonton Capital Region
For administrative purposes, there is the division into Municipal District , in turn, used for statistical purposes to Census Divisions are combined.
Since Alberta expands 1200 km in north-south direction (and about 600 km from east to west), the climate is different between the 49th and 60th latitude considerably. It is also the height above sea level. NN influences: it ranges from about 1,000 meters to the south (Calgary is approximately 1,000 1,200 meters and Red Deer is about 850 meters) up to 650 meters in the north. The presence of the Rocky Mountains to the west and open prairie in the east also affects the weather. The Northern Alberta is mostly of taiga covered and has fewer frost-free days than the south, which is a semi-arid climate. The western Alberta is protected by the mountains and enjoys mild temperatures in winter due to the Chinook winds. Southeastern Alberta, however generally consists of flat, dry plains with some hills and extreme temperatures. These range from very cold (-35 ° C or lower in the winter) to very hot (38 ° C or more in summer). The central and parts of northwestern Alberta in the Peace River are largely aspen parkland , a transitional biome between prairie to the south and to the north of the taiga. After Southern Ontario is the one region of the central Alberta Canada with the highest probability for tornadoes . Thunderstorms are common in summer, especially in central and southern Alberta. The region surrounding the Calgary-Edmonton Corridor is notorious for the highest frequency of hail in Canada.
Alberta generally has cold winters with average temperatures ranging from -10 ° C in the south to -24 ° C in the north. In the south, along the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, the winter is sometimes the Chinook stopped, the temperatures can rise in a short time to up to 20 ° C and more. This usually happens in February or March. In summer, the average daily temperature in the valleys of the Rocky Mountains and in the far north reaches to around 21 ° C, in the dry plains of the southwest up to 30 ° C. In the northern and western parts of the province more rain and evaporation rates are lower because of the cooler summer temperatures. Southern and east-central areas are prone to drought-like conditions, which over some years, although it is also in these areas may be heavy rains. The northern parts of Alberta received because of the very dry climate, quite a lot of sunshine, the east-central part bordering on the province of Saskatchewan is the sunniest place in Canada each year with an average of over 2,500 hours of sunshine.
The three climatic regions of Alberta ( alpine , forest and prairie) are home to many different species. The south and central prairie was the land of the bison . The grass provided food for millions of buffalo. Since the first settlement of the buffalo population was decimated, but the Buffaloes have again proliferated and thrive on farms and in parks all over Alberta.
Alberta is home to many large carnivores . Among them are the grizzly and black bears , which are found in the mountain and forest regions. Representatives of smaller carnivores of the canine and feline families are the coyote , the wolf , the fox , the Canadian lynx , the bobcat and mountain lion ( cougar ).
Herbivores can be found throughout the province. elk and deer (both mule deer and white-tailed deer ) are found in forested areas, and the pronghorn in the prairies of southern Alberta. bighorn sheep and mountain goats live in the Rocky Mountains. rabbits , porcupines , skunks , gray squirrels , and many species of rodents and reptiles live in every region of the province. In Alberta is only one Giftschlangenart the prairie rattlesnake , native.
The largest population centers are Calgary (with Airdrie ), Edmonton (with Sherwood Park , Spruce Grove and St. Albert ), Red Deer , Lethbridge and Medicine Hat
Calgary 879,003 988,193
Edmonton 666,104 730,372
Red Deer 67,829 82,772
Strathcona County ( Sherwood Park ) 71,986 82,511
Lethbridge 67,374 74,637
St. Albert 53,081 57,719
Medicine Hat 51,249 56,997
Wood Buffalo ( Fort McMurray ) 41,445 51,496
Grande Prairie 36,983 47,076
Rockyview 29,925 34,171
Parkland County (Stony Plain) 27,217 29,265
Airdrie 20,407 28,927
Foothills 16,602 19,736
Spruce Grove 15,983 19,496
Alberta was after Princess Louise Caroline Alberta named.
The southern part of the province of Alberta was founded since the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) 1670 part of Rupert's land and was under the administration of the HBC so. The northern part of the area was still only of the North West Company administered, but in 1821 the HBC opened (see Pemmican War ).
At around 1731 the French reached the territory of the western Canadian prairies. She later founded communities such as Lac La Biche and Bonnyville . Fort La Jonquière was built in 1752 near the present-day Calgary. The first explorer of the Athabasca region was Peter Pond , who built on behalf of the North West Company in 1778, the Fort Athabasca on Lac La Biche. 1788 founded Roderick Mackenzie Fort Chipewyan , the oldest European settlement in Alberta, on the northwest tip of Athabascasees .
Alexander Mackenzie 's cousin Roderick Mackenzie, followed the North Saskatchewan River to its northernmost point near Edmonton, then continued on foot to the north and followed the Athabasca River to Lake Athabasca . There he discovered a discharge, the Mackenzie River , that he followed to its outlet in the Arctic Ocean . He returned to Lake Athabasca and followed the Peace River upstream, reaching the Pacific . Mackenzie became the first European who crossed the American continent north of Mexico.
1882 Alberta became a separate district of the Northwest Territories , 1905, its area increases after a long campaign for autonomy and a province. Alexander Cameron Rutherford was the first Prime Minister.
The political system is based on the Alberta Westminster system with a unicameral parliament. The Legislative Assembly consists of 87 members, in as many constituencies for the electoral system to be selected. The Deputy Governor , who represents the head of state may, in consultation with the Prime Minister within a certain time frame dissolve (within five years) and parliament before elections begin, the British Parliament in accordance with tradition. Prime Minister is always the chairman of the party, which has won the most seats. This office currently has Alison Redford held, lieutenant governor is Donald Ethell .
Alberta politics is considered the most conservative of all the provinces. 27 of 28 representatives of Alberta in the Canadian House of Commons are the Conservative Party of Canada to. At the provincial level which represents Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta , the government continuously since 1971. Alberta for this reason is sometimes referred to as "Texas North". Under the Canadian Constitution are Alberta six seats in the Senate , which are all currently held by Conservative senators.
Culture and sightseeing
Alberta has developed as a popular tourist destination in the early 20th Century, with several attractions and sporting attractions such as skiing, hiking, camping, as well as a popular shopping district with the largest mall in North America to the West Edmonton Mall . Besides the shopping mall is the Stephen Avenue in Calgary, a popular shopping street with shops restaurants and cafes. Very popular range of outdoor festivals and events, such as including the professional athletic event, the International Sporting Competitions, as well as the Commonwealth Games and Olympic Games and other events. Alberta is also called the land of cowboys. Nowhere in Canada there are so many working and guest ranches as here. Every year, the Calgary Stampede instead, it is the largest rodeo of its kind worldwide to participate in the annual 1.2 million people.
Alberta's Rocky Mountains are popular with tourists including through Banff National Park and Jasper National Park . The two parks are connected by one of the most beautiful highway the Icefields Parkway . Banff is located about 128 kilometers west of Calgary and is connected to the Highway 1. Jasper is located 366 kilometers west of Edmonton on Yellowhead Highway .
Alberta has a number of national parks and provincial parks . To the west lies the Jasper National Park and Banff National Park , in the north of the Wood Buffalo National Park in the east of Elk Iceland National Park , in the southeast of Dinosaur Provincial Park and south of Waterton Lakes National Park . The following parks are with the UNESCO World Heritage-Price has received. The Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks , the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park , the Wood Buffalo National Park , the Dinosaur Provincial Park and Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump . Thus, five of Canada's fourteen World Heritage parks are parks in the province.
One of the largest boulders in the world, about 16,000 tons and 18 meter high Big Rock is located near Calgary. He was about 18,000 years ago by a wandering ice glaciers transported to its current location.
The competent Tourist Board, Alberta Economic Development registered, on average about 4 million tourists a year in Edmonton and Calgary. In Banff , Jasper and the Rocky Mountains hold in addition to three million tourists annually. Many tourists come from southern Ontario and other provinces of Canada, and from the United States and outside of North America
Alberta has a 180,000 Km long highway and road network. The major north-south connection is served by Highway second Highway 2 begins south of Cardston passes the Carway border and is part of the Canamex corridor leading Canada with Mexico connects with the United States. Highway 4 which is adjacent to Interstate 15 and also the most important vielbefahrendste main link is connecting the United States with the province.
Other major highways in the province are:
Highway 43 connects Athabasca with Grande Prairie
Trans Canada Highway connects all provinces from coast to coast.
Highway 2 connects Calgary Edmonton
Highway 11 connects Saskatchewan River Crossing and ends at Red Deer .
Highway 12 connects Compeer and Bentley
Alberta has two major international airports, of which several national and international connections are available. These airports are served by any major international airline. The Calgary International Airport is the third largest and the Edmonton International Airport is the fifth busiest airport in Canada. The Calgary Airport is a hub for WestJet Airlines and for Air Canada . From Calgary airport, there are flight connections to several Canadian provinces, as well as 15 major U.S. airports, 9 European destinations, a route to Asia, four in Mexico and the Caribbean. From the Edmonton airport connections are offered to all major Canadian airports as well as served 10 U.S. airports, 3 European airports and six Mexican and Caribbean airports.
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